In a class with Dr. Robin Gray at the Department of Sociology of the University of Toronto, we were tasked with creating a list that could be used to update a comprehensive exam in our study areas. I focused on the environmental sociology comprehensive exam, proposing a list that could be added as a section to that exam. I have edited the assignment so that it flows more naturally as a resource here.
I primarily used Google Scholar to build this bibliography, using keyword combinations like, "Indigenous peoples" AND ("environment" OR "nature" OR "land"). Another element of the criteria was that the article, chapter, or book should be highly cited, which is, of course, related to the year it was published. I also leaned one of my brothers, Dylan Bateman. He is studying for a PhD in English at UBC, and his supervisor is Daniel Heath Justice.
Structural Analysis of Land
Environmental sociology has typically been dominated by white men. White men in the 1970s started the trend of talking about “environmental sociology”, but if you look at what environmental sociology studies, it is not exclusive to those white men and the people who followed in the discipline after them.
I think what sociologists, Indigenous scholars, and other social scientists and humanities scholars do is structural analysis. But I also want to take Tuck et al.’s (2014) recommendation into account and not talk of the “environment” but instead talk about “land”. Talking about "the structural analysis of land" rather than "environmental sociology", helps the study of land/nature/the environment more naturally entail taking different structural standpoints to understand structure and land, including sociology, Indigenous studies, anthropology, geography, and others.
Understanding Indigenous ways of knowing and Indigenous practices is critical for someone living on Indigenous land (e.g., someone doing a PhD in Toronto). Anyone studying and writing about land who is living in a colonized place and a site of "survivance" (e.g., Tuck 2009), should be trying to grapple with colonialism, decolonization, and reindigenization as the central focus of their studies. A relational perspective (e.g., Wilson 2008) that constantly asks someone—whether Indigenous or non-Indigenous—to understand their relations to other people, other groups, and other beings in nature like waters and animal species, trees and fungi, and all the other beings, should be the central perspective that they learn.
There is a perspective shift needed on the part of settlers or people trained only in Western ways of understanding land/nature (the perspective shift as represented by, e.g., Brayboy 2005; Nakata 2007; Wilson 2008). There are radical shifts needed to think alongside Indigenous peoples when thinking about the environment (e.g., Brayboy 2005; Nakata 2007; Wilson 2008).
Adese, Jennifer. 2014. “Spirit Gifting: Ecological Knowing in Métis Life Narratives.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3(3):48–66. (Has over 30 Google scholar Citations).
Barnhardt, Ray, and Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley. 2005. “Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Alaska Native Ways of Knowing.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 36(1):8–23. doi: 10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.008. (Has over 1,100 Google Scholar citations).
Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones. 2005. “Toward a Tribal Critical Race Theory in Education.” The Urban Review 37(5):425–46. doi: 10.1007/s11256-005-0018-y. (Has over 1,300 Google Scholar Citations).
McGregor, Deborah. 2004. “Coming Full Circle: Indigenous Knowledge, Environment, and Our Future.” The American Indian Quarterly 28(3):385–410. doi: 10.1353/aiq.2004.0101. (Has over 430 Google Scholar Citations).
McGregor, Deborah. 2009. “Honouring Our Relations: An Anishnaabe Perspective on Environmental Justice.” Pp. 27–41 in Speaking for Ourselves: Environmental Justice in Canada, edited by J. Agyeman, P. Cole, R. Haluza-DeLay, and P. O’Riley. Vancouver, BC and Toronto, ON: University of British Columbia Press. (Has over 110 Google Scholar Citations).
Nakata, Martin. 2007. “The Cultural Interface.” The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education 36(S1):7–14. doi: 10.1017/S1326011100004646. (Has over 670 Google Scholar Citations).
Reid, Andrea J., Lauren E. Eckert, John‐Francis Lane, Nathan Young, Scott G. Hinch, Chris T. Darimont, Steven J. Cooke, Natalie C. Ban, and Albert Marshall. 2021. “‘Two‐Eyed Seeing’: An Indigenous Framework to Transform Fisheries Research and Management.” Fish and Fisheries 22(2):243–61. doi: 10.1111/faf.12516.
Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake. 2014. “Land as Pedagogy: Nishnaabeg Intelligence and Rebellious Transformation.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 3(3):1–25. (Has over 650 Google Scholar Citations).
TallBear, Kim. 2017. “Beyond the Life/Not-Life Binary: A Feminist-Indigenous Reading of Cryopreservation, Interspecies Thinking, and the New Materialisms.” Pp. 179–202 in Cryopolitics: Frozen Life in a Melting World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Todd, Zoe. 2016. “An Indigenous Feminist’s Take On The Ontological Turn: ‘Ontology’ Is Just Another Word For Colonialism: An Indigenous Feminist’s Take on the Ontological Turn.” Journal of Historical Sociology 29(1):4–22. doi: 10.1111/johs.12124.
Todd, Zoe. 2015. “Fish Pluralities: Human-Animal Relations and Sites of Engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada.” Études/Inuit/Studies 38(1–2):217–38. doi: 10.7202/1028861ar.
Tuck, Eve, Marcia McKenzie, and Kate McCoy. 2014. “Land Education: Indigenous, Post-Colonial, and Decolonizing Perspectives on Place and Environmental Education Research.” Environmental Education Research 20(1):1–23. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2013.877708. (Has over 350 Google Scholar Citations).
Watts, Vanessa. 2013. “Indigenous Place-Thought & Agency amongst Humans and Non-Humans (First Woman and Sky Woman Go on a European World Tour!).” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 2(1):20–34. (Has over 460 Google Scholar citations).
Walia, Harsha, and Glen Sean Coulthard. 2015. “'Land Is a Relationship": In Conversation with Glen Coulthard on Indigenous Nationhood.” Rabble News https://rabble.ca/columnists/2015/01/land-relationship-conversation-glen-coulthard-on-indigenous-nationhood.
Wilson, Shawn. 2008. Research Is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methods. Halifax and Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing. Pages: 12–21, 32–42, 73–79.
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